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Berzsenyi Z. Növénytermelés, Crossa, J. Advances in Agronomy, Finlay, K. Győrffy B : Effect of crop production factors on maize yields, Experiment code: Komplex I Különböző növénytermesztési tényezők hatása a kukorica termésére, Komplex I. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
Kang, M. Agronomy Journal, Sváb J. Mezőgazdasági Kiadó, Budapest. Tollenaar, M. Field Crops Research, Its value is derived from its seed oil which contains unusually high levels of gamma linolenic acid GLAan uncommon fatty acid which is used in pharmaceuticals and nutritional supplements.
Whilst such improvements have led to a reduction in the seed price, increases in seed oil content and quality i. Its value is derived from its seed oil which contains unusually high levels of gamma linolenic acid GLAan uncommon fatty acid which is used in pharmaceuticals and nutritional supplements Horrobin, Although found in some other plant and fungal oils, in evening primrose oil GLA is thought to occur in its most bioactive state, as part of a triacylglycerol called Enotherol® Horrobin, A brief botanical description of evening primrose was given by Fieldsend a.
Early commercial crops of evening primrose were grown from seed stocks available through the horticultural trade Fieldsend, a.
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This and similar lines were unsuitable for agriculture in many ways, for example in having seed capsules which split as they matured, meaning that a significant proportion of seed was lost prior to harvest.
This factor simply compounded the problem that the potential seed yield of evening primrose was already much lower than that of other combinable crops Nix, UK-based Agricultural Holdings, owned by the Balint family, was an important early anti aging ital nasa launch producer, sourcing much of its seed from Hungary.
Its subsidiary, which in time became Scotia Pharmaceuticals Ltd, a leading manufacturer of products derived from evening primrose oil, set up an evening primrose breeding programme in the mid- s. Whilst development of cultivars with non-splitting capsules was an important 29 eeding objective, as higher seed yields would lead to a reduction in the price per tonne of seed, Scotia recognised that of equal importance was an increase in the oil for nutritional supplements and GLA for pharmaceuticals contents of the seed.
The difference is that whilst the former are normally consumed by users as a fixed volume of oil per day, for the latter the daily dose of GLA is the important criterion. Evening primrose breeding is made difficult by its unusual genetic system Cleland, The formation of chromosome rings at meiosis, ordered chromosome movement and the presence of lethal genes limit segregation and therefore scope for selecting improved lines in the generations following the initial cross. Variable establishment, coupled with seed dormancy in many genotypes, and the long growing season of the overwintered crop in temperate climates approximately 14 months also present practical problems Fieldsend and Morison, a.
For unimproved lines, field sowing would be an unreliable method of trialling, and selection of lines to trial would need to be made before the previous generation of breeding material had been harvested.
This paper describes the methods developed by Scotia to breed evening primrose and the improvements in oil content and quality of commercial crops in New Zealand which have resulted from the use of cultivars developed by the programme. Each accession was evaluated in a single spring-transplanted row of 21 plants.
Seeds were sown in potting compost in mm diameter pots in January and placed in a refrigerator set at 4ºC for weeks to break dormancy, following which the pots were transferred to a propagator hotbox at a temperature of 27ºC.
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Soon after emergence 24 seedlings of each accession were pricked out into potting compost in modules and kept in a heated glasshouse with a mean temperature of 13ºC. The rosettes were moved out of the glasshouse to acclimate during late April and transplanted into 5 m rows with a 0.
Assessments on each row were carried out during the growing season and at maturity representative single plants were hand harvested and dried using a forced-air drier before the seed was removed from the capsules by hand-threshing. Following cleaning, seed samples were analysed for oil and GLA content using methods described by Fieldsend and Morison b.
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Eventually, a crossing programme was established to generate new breeding lines. Crosses were carried out using plants grown in pots in an insect-proof glasshouse. Prior to the pollen becoming viable, the anthers were removed from flowers of the plants to be used as female parents and, 24 hours later, the stigmas were hand pollinated using anthers from the male parent.
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Reciprocal crosses were carried out as the progeny of reciprocal crosses within Oenothera can be genetically completely different from each other Cleland, The seed was hand-harvested and stored during the winter. Subsequent generations were evaluated in anti aging ital nasa launch rows as described above.
In extreme cases, the F1 population of Oenothera is genetically uniform and contains one complete genome from each parent. No genetic segregation takes place in subsequent generations.
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Even anti aging ital nasa launch less extreme cases, only limited segregation occurs. Hence, Scotia adopted legjobb öregedésgátló szemkrém 2022 uk 30 modified pedigree breeding method, entailing a large number of crosses and very small 21 plant F2 populations.
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Unpromising breeding lines could be discarded after the F2 generation whilst in some cases populations were uniform anti aging ital nasa launch showed enough commercial promise for seed multiplication to start. Clearly, this method does not allow the breeder to evaluate seed yields or the ability of the breeding line to overwinter.
During the s, overwintering ability was assessed on autumn-transplanted rows of the breeding lines showing the most promise in F3 springsown rows. Selection of lines for trialling was based on field assessments from the F1, F2 and until mid-August when the choice of lines for trialling had to be made F3 breeding rows plus the oil and GLA content data from the F2 rows.
By the s, however, the establishment ability of the breeding lines had improved to such an extent that the most commercially promising advanced breeding anti aging ital nasa launch could be evaluated in autumn and spring-sown replicated yield trials c.
Fieldsend and Morison, a. New Zealand is an important source of evening primrose seed, not least because the sixmonth difference in harvest date compared to the northern hemisphere spreads the demands of harvest, storage and payment for seed more equably throughout the year.
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Overwintered crops are normally sown in February and harvested in March of the following year, whilst spring-sown crops are sown in September or October and harvested in April. The husbandry of spring-sown crops is described by Fieldsend The total area of crops grown under contract to Scotia in ranged between ha and ha, with an approximately equal split between overwintered and spring-sown crops in the earlier years and a subsequent emphasis on spring production. This area would be divided between over 20 farmers, who would normally use field sizes of between 4 and 16 ha Fieldsend,