Some of these lo- vinces of Europe. As numerous written documents cations showed potential, notably Saˆnpaul, where show, from the early Middle Ages salt was inten- wooden posts lie in the bed of a salt stream; in sively exploited in this area and widely traded; it survey using differential Anti aging old harding was undertaken was one of the most important sources of income on a number of sites, and in some cases geophysi- for the authorities and played an important role in cal prospection as well.
Samples were taken for economic and political life. By contrast, the evi- radiocarbon dating at Saˆnpaul. This work will be dence for salt-working in the prehistoric and Roman reported on elsewhere. In the same year we were periods was until recently limited to a few acciden- informed about anti aging sminklemosó discovery at Baˇile Figa, near Be- tal discoveries.
These included wooden objects used clean in Bistrit¸a-Naˇsaˇud county. The anti aging old harding was ori- in salt mining found at various locations in Transyl- ginally noted in by the geologist from Bistrit¸a vania, including Valea Florilor, Ocna Anti aging old harding, Turda, Museum, Dr. Among these posts he in the northern Maramures¸, now Ukraine,1 as well as observed the broken end of a large wooden object, votive altars with inscriptions mentioning persons which turned out to be a trough.
In a publication anti aging old harding responsible for the administration of salt in RomanChintaˇuan and Russu, relying on the similar- Dacia. Soon and within the framework of this pro- afterwards he published the trough, with the sug- ject. We were then taken to Baˇile marised in e. Monah We took two samples of the trough for istry of Culture and Cults of Romania, to whom we express our radiocarbon dating; the results, anti aging old harding they were ob- thanks.
The illustrations in 6 their present form were prepared by Sean Goddard Department Maxim This com- humans and for disinfecting wounds on animals.
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The remains of a di- belonged to the Bronze Age, and that the Figa site lapidated concrete bathing pool are still present, deserved full investigation. Following a successful along with other concrete foundations for buildings. The latter began in on a full surface survey at Figa, in- no longer functions, and most of the houses anti aging old harding cluding a catalogue of all visible wood remains, abandoned. The work at Saˇsarm lage Figs.
This deposit appears between 1. The site lies in a hemispherical Eastern Carpathians, Sfıˆntu Gheorghe. The sediment Following the survey of and further suc- accumulated in this depression, in contact with the cessful funding applications, excavation began in salt, transformed itself over time into a consistent April The situation was complicated by the layer of salty mud.
The mud layer is overlain by a fact that unknown to us at anti aging old harding time, permission yellowish soil mixed with gravel, about 1 m thick. The main spring stroyed most of the northern half of the site. Addi- lies at the southern end of the anti aging old harding. About 70 m farther down- been possible. Work in the southern part of joins the Somes¸ul Mare river in Beclean.
In times of and Conversely, dur- been much affected by human activities, mainly salt ing droughts it is almost completely dry and the mining, from prehistory down to the present day. Enquiries in Figa revealed that until the s people from the neighbouring villages extracted rock salt from the Fieldwork — site, using it mainly as a forage supplement.
There pographic survey of the whole exploitation area are a few brine springs in the main stream at Figa; formed by mounds and hollowsas well as the some of them are still in use, others are blocked cataloguing and measuring of all visible wooden and abandoned. The locals use brine in order to preserve lard, meat, cheese and vegetables. At the 10 With the renewed interest in the area, new houses are being same time, they use the salty mud and brine to constructed and the electricity supply will soon be restored.
Prehistoric salt production Fig. Baˇile Figa. Location map. Most of this seemed to be the case; they are visible in the these elements were observed within the stream stream, because that is where the overburden has bed or close to it, though they sometimes disap- been washed away. Several From the survey it appeared that the site cov- timber structures were visible away from the stream ers almost the entire valley, about m north- bed, in pits dug in modern times.
This appeared to south " m east-west. View from the North-west, August The results indicated that four end Fig. Many of the posts were close together fall around cal BC, one around cal BC and and seemed to have formed constructions of some one around cal AD see below for a discussion kind. It appeared likely that some of these repre- of the dating. This confirmed the previous impres- sented the remains of shafts or adits going into the sion that the site included a strong Bronze Age stream banks, similar to those that we saw at Saˇ- component, but added the hitherto anti aging old harding infor- sarm, where some are probably of a fairly modern mation that some elements dated to the Iron Age date.
This Subsequent survey at the site has been con- information made it imperative, from the point of ducted by S. Digital Domain srl and S. Vector view of understanding the technology of salt pro- Studio srl, whose staff have worked in close colla- duction on the site, to undertake excavation. At the northern end of the site, on both sides of the stream, a small number of prehistoric and Excavation — some 19th century sherds were visible.
The prehis- toric sherds were not diagnostic, but might be of Initially digging was done entirely by hand, but in Bronze Age date. More significant were anti aging old harding made view of the prospect that a large part of the site in the stream bed: a fragmentary stone shaft-hole would be destroyed by the spa development, an Prehistoric salt production Fig.
General plan, showing trench locations. Twenty- two trenches in total were opened across the area Trench I S. I Fig. Work concentrated in two the salt spring at the extreme southern end of the areas: the extreme south of the site Trenches I and site, and covered an area on either side of the XXIand the northern area Trenches III and VII.
Excavation took place in April un- to see if wooden structures were present, and if so, der the direction of Anthony Harding with Dan whether preservation might be necessary. It is hoped that most of under the direction of Harding. Baˇile Figa, Trench I. For convenience the trench is referred to in two parts, east of and west of the stream. Trench north was displaced by a few degrees from true north.
Initially in April a small area was opened, 4 " 4 m, crossing the stream at a point where large timbers projecting from the eastern bank indicated the possible presence of a trough. This area was subsequently extended to the north, first on the eastern side 6 " 2 m, with a 1 m baulk left between this and the initial trenchand later to the western side.
At this stage the trench measured a total of 10 " 8 m, the baulk stretching across the whole trench except over the stream itself in an east- west direction. The only part of the trench that was excavated to a level below that of the topsoil, how- ever, was the original south-east corner. Elsewhere the topsoil was removed and the exposed timbers cleaned up and planned.
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Already in April two new troughs, nos. Anti aging old harding August most of the ex- posed timbers were long pieces lying more or less horizontally, or brushwood of modern origin.
Also in Augustan additional trench 4 " 2 m was excavated to the east separated from the original one by a 1 m baulkdeep into the material rising up from the stream. A number of large tim- bers was uncovered, lying in several orientations and slopes; but beyond planning their position no further work was done. Regrettably no profiles were drawn at this stage, and in the following winter the trench edges collapsed making further excavation dangerous and recording difficult. In the following seasons these edges were stabilised and the pro- files sections drawn.
View from the East, August anti aging old harding In Aprila further area was opened to A grid of 2 m squares, denoted by an alpha- the north-east, so that the entire eastern extension numeric system, was used for recording purposes.
Because of poor weather conditions and the use of untrained workmen for the removal The features recovered of material, excavation was unusually difficult and conditions trying. Baulk collapses, anti aging old harding had al- Large numbers of wooden objects were present in ready occurred over the winter, continued with the all areas vinoderm anti aging élelmiszerek the trench.
While most emanated from constant tramp of feet on saturated surfaces; mud, activities presumed to relate to salt production, not to be expected in the trench itself because of the all showed signs of working though anti aging old harding were from constant seepage of spring water, came to cover cut branches or trunks.
The situation was com- ever larger areas of the site. These conditions were plex; and the situation was made even more com- eventually ameliorated in the drier weather of sum- plex, when the results of radiocarbon dating came mers and In August all features in through, since they showed that timbers at more or the western part of the trench were fully excavated less the same depth could be of greatly different after the removal of overlying timbers see below.
Some elements, such as the ladder belowThe eastern half of the trench was extended and lay in deep shafts which went anti aging old harding deeper than wat- the two parts joined up, exposing the rectangular tle fences of a much earlier date. The problem anti aging old harding box construction below. In August this east- the excavators was that no real stratigraphy was ern part was extended further, though the great discernible in the muds and clays that filled the depth of material as the trench went farther into trench, even though the depths of deposit are con- the rising ground meant that no great additional siderable Fig.
The final dimensions of the over centuries of use and re-use. Thus, the fact that trench at the close of excavations were approxi- one timber lay at a lower absolute level than an- mately 10 " 14 m; however, because of the terrain other öregedésgátló arc alkalmazás little significance in the overall sequence the trench edges in the eastern extension were not of site use. The description which follows proceeds on quite the same alignment as in the western half from west to east.
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Numbers in square brackets are of the trench. South-facing profile, north-eastern sector. Explanation of layer numbers: 1 topsoil, 2 brown-grey silt, 3 brown-grey clay with grits, 4 redeposited clay, 5 variegated orange clay, 6 light grey clay, 7 grey clay. A sizeable quantity of smaller branches and The other side of the stream, immediately opposite brushwood covered the upper levels of the extreme Trough 3, Trough 2 was found A1—B1 Fig.
A length of twisted plant binding sur- a large tree-trunk, part of a felled tree lying in mod- rounded it and originally fastened it to other woo- ern stream muds. A small quantity of modern pot- den pieces, no longer in situ it may also have held tery was found among these small branches, in- it together when it became broken.
Trough 2 lay a dicating that they and the felled tree are the result little above the stream, not in it. To its south, in A1, of recent activity probably 20th century. A large were three oblique posts tied together with a plant roundish boulder was also present C4though binding, deeply embedded in the muds and going there is no indication as to its function if any.
Pro- below the water table. In spite of the depth in- files were cut through the deposit in two places A2 volved, the radiocarbon dates obtained belong to and C4but no earlier timbers or other material the fifth-sixth centuries cal AD, indicating that activ- were evident and no further digging was done on ity was continuing on the site much later than the this part of the trench.
Bronze Age, to which ránctalanítás természetesen troughs belong see be- In area B2—B3 a number of long anti aging old harding were low.
After wattle hurdle or fencelying horizontal, was cleaning anti aging hidratáló krém receptek was evident that they overlay other fea- found. It was unclear if it lay in situ more or lesstures and after planning they were removed. Some or had been uprooted from its original position and had working on the ends, which indicated they thrown to one side.
In view of the situation with the were part of a dismantled structure, probably a box box structure in the eastern half of the trench, the like that found in the eastern half of the trench. Un- latter is probably more likely.
Beside anti aging old harding was a bun- derlying them was a ladderthe two sides dle of polesapparently the uprights in wat- being andsloping steeply down into a tle fences, perhaps in position ready to create such large pit Fig. The ladder is described below; the fences.
Two radiocarbon dates fall in the 15th cen- largest part is 5. A confused mass of timber lay to the east of Two radiocarbon dates on ladder timbers indicate this hurdle and Trough 2. The ground rises steeply an Iron Age date, showing that the pit in which it at this point, so that the relationships between indi- lay must have been open at that period. The ladder vidual timbers was not clear. A line of superimposed was removed for conservation, but the pit could timbers lay along the eastern edge of squares C1 not be excavated to the bottom because its base and D1, perhaps forming part of the box structure was already at the water table.
A2, close to Trough 3 in B2. It was formed of split oak timbers Prehistoric salt production lying one on top of another; at the deepest point examined, to the south-east, at least ten superim- posed timbers were present in the east wall, and the wall thus formed continued below the water table.
The recovered maximum height of the wall was around 1. In the interior of the box several cross members at differing heights seem to have served as props to keep the walls vertical. Vertical posts were placed at each corner anti aging old harding also in the middle of the preserved long walls. The hor- izontal members adjoined these verticals in anti aging old harding unu- sual and characteristic form of joint see report by Richard Brunning, belowin which one side was composed of a concave hollowing out of the timber end, the other of a natural fork in the timber where a branch went off, the effect accentuated in some cases by a right-angle cut Fig.
Around the box construction, to the south, east and north, many timbers were found, in a va- riety of positions and angles, but not forming any apparent construction, instead apparently collapsed or thrown aside from various installations that might have existed prior to the construction of the box.
Possible indications of a line of posts run- ning north-east — south-west through EIII—DII were tentatively suggested, but could not be confirmed. This looks to be similar to the circular arrangements anti aging old harding wattle fence found in Trench III, where several anti aging old harding dates have shown that they belong to the Bronze Age see below.
If this is the case so far these fences are undated in Trench Iit would appear that a series of Bronze Age constructions were cut into and broken up during the construction of the box during the Iron Age.
Ladder as completely exposed. Troughs 2 and 3 as discovered. Box structure in eastern sector, from the East, August In Fig. This in- cludes the box structure to the east and the piled up poles, probably emanating from it or another feature like it, and overlying the ladder to the west. The troughs and wattle elements, known or be- lieved to be of Bronze Age date, are shown in red. The pole construction of early medieval date is shown in blue. The wattle elements are evi- dent in various places, notably the curving wall in the north-eastern sector.
Clarins spa at home kozmetikai szett a hidratalt borert
Timbers shaded grey are undated and anti aging old harding relationship to the dated ele- ments is uncertain. Trench I was evidently an important element in the overall scheme of salt production at Baˇile Figa, in view of the many and varied installations recovered within it. Of course it is not known how typical these were of the whole production site, and whether such elements were originally present more widely.