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For although the new Hungary had clearly become an ethnic Magyar nation-state, included among the population left outside the partitioned country were roughly 3. Thus, instead of furthering the cause of national self-determination, the Great Powers created an irredenta surpassed proportionally st triphon svájci anti aging Europe only by the Albanians.
The knowledge that the Great Powers had refused to grant the Successor States the most excessive of their demands, including the important cities of Pécs, Salgótarján, and Sátoraljaújhely as well as a belt of territory in Western Transdanubia to link Czechoslovakia with Yugoslavia the so-called "Slav Corridor"provided little comfort for Hungary. Through a series of bilateral treaties signed in and with French backing, Czechoslovakia, Romania and the Kingdom of the Svájci sunrise anti aging, Croats and Slovenes quickly formed a strategic alliance, the Little Entente, the primary goals of which were to prevent a Habsburg restoration and thwart Hungarian aspirations in the region.
Furthermore, while Hungary was surrounded by this ring of openly hostile neighbors, Part V of the Treaty of Trianon placed severe restrictions on the country's military forces.
It provided for an army of only 35, men, including officers article Nor could Hungary maintain an air force or even own military aircraft articles These clauses and the fact that the majority of Hungary's largest towns lay relatively close to the new borders led many to opine that Trianon had rendered the country virtually indefensible.
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The new frontiers also disrupted the country's economic life by depriving it of vital railways, important markets and precious natural resources. Exacerbating the situation were onerous demands for reparations payments Part VIII, articles Hungary was obligated to pay reparations for a period of thirty years, beginning inalthough the amount was not specified by the treaty but rather was to be determined by a "reparations committee" headquartered in Paris.
Fleeing foreign occupation, hundreds of thousands of refugees 12 streamed into the reduced country, further straining its meager resources. It is small wonder that to many observers, Trianon Hungary seemed to be an unviable state, incapable of life életképtelen. The disintegration of historical Hungary was not simply the result of the unfortunate vagaries of history.
In fact, a constellation of both internal and external factors came into play: the radicalization of the demands of the nationalities, Hungary's involvement in the war and her subsequent loss of prestige, and the change in the needs and interests of the victorious Great Powers. As one noted participant, Harold Nicolson, later recalled: My feelings towards Hungary were less detached. I confess that I regarded, and still regard, that Turanian tribe with great distaste.
Like their cousins the Turks, they had destroyed much and created nothing. Buda Pest was a false city devoid of any autochthonous reality. For centuries svájci sunrise anti aging Magyars had oppressed their subject nationalities.
The hour of liberation and of retribution was at hand. Unlike in the case of the neighboring states, whose claims were studied by separate committees, no single committee dealing exclusively with Hungarian affairs tipp svájci fodrász anti aging ever established. Moreover, the Treaty of Trianon was drafted and debated relatively late in the peace negotiations, at a time when the peacemakers were anxious to bring the entire process to a swift conclusion.
Countless historical towns, buildings and monuments, deeply ingrained in Hungarian national consciousness, were now located outside the country and required a passport to visit. National heroes, such as János Hunyadi and Ferenc Rákóczi, were now entombed in foreign countries.
People needed answers to explain why historical Hungary had disintegrated. In general, the search for an explanation led to an indictment of Western liberalism, and in that effort writers and scholars played a leading role.
Among the countless "Trianon books" that appeared after the war, the most influential were Dezső Szabó's polemical növelsz elsodort falu The Village Swept Away,Gyula Szekfïï's historical study Három nemzedék Three Generations, and Cécile Tommy's two-volume Bujdosó könyv Fugitive's Book, All three works were written in response to the events that unfolded during the Republic of Councils March 21 - August 1,led by öregedésgátló bőrápolás 60 másodpercig premier Hungarian Bolshevik Béla Kun ; they illustrate in part the dominant "Christian National" ideology of the interwar period as well as the conservative turn Hungarian cultural life underwent after Szekfű's Three Generations in particular enjoyed a large readership throughout the period, and its author came to be widely regarded as the chief ideologist of the Horthy Era.
Montgomery, "without knowing that nem, nem, soha meant no, no - never, svájci sunrise anti aging that it referred to the boundaries fixed by the Treaty of Trianon. The suddenness with which the content of the peace treaty was revealed gave neither the Hungarian political leadership nor the public time to prepare for the blow.
The ensuing "Trianon syndrome" manifested itself in an irredentist cult, one which occasionally reached astonishing proportions. In his informative study of interwar revisionism, Miklós Zeidler clarifies the important distinction between "revisionism" and "irredentism", concepts that have been frequently used interchangeably.
Revisionism can be defined as the attempt to modify the terms of a treaty through diplomacy and international law.
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By contrast, irredentism aspires to take back national territories under foreign rule; it seeks to achieve this goal either peacefully or by force.
In Zeidler's opinion, Hungary's foreign policy between the two world wars was officially revisionist, though it often resorted to the threat of armed force and the slogans of irredentism. Others included Mindent vissza! Everything back!
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Thus it was, thus it shall be! Mutilated Hungary is not a country, entire Hungary is heaven! It became customary for Hungarian school children to recite the so-called "Hungarian Credo" Magyar Hiszekegy at the beginning and end of each class: I believe in one God, I believe in one Homeland, I believe in one divine eternal truth, I believe in Hungary's resurrection. Hungary was frequently personified as a wounded maiden Hungária.
The country's suffering took on religious imagery: the map of historical Hungary depicted crucified and wearing a crown of thorns became popular in this period, while irredentist artwork made frequent reference to Hungary's "resurrection". Four largerthan-life allegorical sculptures representing North, South, East and West were erected in January A twenty-meter high flagpole emerged from a pedestal, which formed a reliquary containing soil from each of the counties of historical Hungary.
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The pole was topped with a one-meter hand cast in copper and modeled after Horthy's ownpoised as if to swear an oath. Even some of Hungary's most talented citizens participated in the movement.
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Many prominent Hungarian authors, poets and artists had been born outside the boundaries of Trianon Hungary and now required a passport to visit their hometown or svájci sunrise anti aging.
Dezső Kosztolányione of the Hungarian svájci sunrise anti aging most gifted writers, edited an anthology of irredentist writing in the early s entitled Bleeding Hungary Vérző Magyarország.
The volume, which contained works by both famous authors as well as others now long-forgotten, featured a preface by Admiral Horthy and contributions from other important public figures, such as János Csernochthe Archbishop of Esztergom.
Included also was a fold-out map of historical Hungary indicating the names of dozens of famous Hungarians born outside the Trianon borders. The caption to the map asked plaintively, "Can the Svájci sunrise anti aging make us believe that János Arany was born in Romania?
Can the Czechs make us believe that Mór Jókai was born in Czechoslovakia? The poet Mihály Babitswho had worked as a teacher before World War I at the gimnázium in the Transylvanian town of Fogaras, wrote a cycle of poems entitled My Homeland! Enyhe dombsor, lankatag magyar föld! Röpülj, lelkem, röpüld svájci sunrise anti aging hazámat!
Szemhatártól szemhatárig, s újra merre emléked, a halk selyempók vonja szálát, szállj a rónán túlra s át hol svájci sunrise anti aging a bolond sorompók: és akármit ír a kard a rögre, lankád mellől el ne bocsásd bérced: ha hazád volt, az marad örökre; senkisem bíró, csak ahogy érzed!
In the decades preceding the First World War, certain segments of Hungarian society had become convinced that it was Hungary's destiny to supplant Austria as the true center of power both within the Habsburg Monarchy and in the region. Symptomatic of this illusory "Great Power" status was the spate of monumental building projects planned for the millennial celebrations ofincluding Heroes' Square, Svájci sunrise anti aging Stephen's Basilica and the neo-Gothic Parliament on the banks of the Danube.
Many became blinded by the dazzling spectacle of the Millennium Exhibition held in the City Park, which celebrated one thousand years of Hungarian history and accomplishment in the Carpathian Basin. The Exhibition came to be seen by many non-Magyars as svájci sunrise anti aging ultimate expression of Magyar chauvinism, for it juxtaposed a vision of the heroic Magyar past alongside an unflattering portrayal of the nationalities and their assigned place in the hierarchy of the kingdom, which further exacerbated already inflamed nationalist passions.
The latter foresaw in his newspaper Budapesti Hírlap an "empire of thirty million Magyars"; this he trumpeted at a time when the population of Hungary stood somewhere around twenty-one million including Croatiaof which the total number of ethnic Magyars barely reached ten million, and large-scale emigration to the New World was taking place.
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In addition to this pervasive irredentism, interwar Hungary was characterized by a relentless pursuit of revisionism. Needless to say, revision of the Treaty of Trianon became the national cause as well as the primary objective of every Hungarian government during the Horthy Era. The minimal goal was the recapture of all Hungarian-inhabited territories, while the maximal goal sought to restore the borders of the historical Kingdom of Saint Stephen.
Correspondingly, there existed at least in theory two major conceptions of revisionism in interwar Hungary: ethnic or ethnographic revisionism and integral revisionism.
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The principle of national self-determination served as the basis for ethnic revisionism, which aimed at recovering only those territories inhabited exclusively or primarily by Hungarians. The peace settlement had indeed left approximately 1.
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This territory was almost exclusively Hungarian but assigned to Czechoslovakia to provide the new state with a more secure border and an outlet to the Danube. This area, formed by the eastern reaches of the Great Plain and the so-called Partium, included the important towns of Nagykároly CareiNagyvárad Oradea and Arad. The region had been awarded to Romania along with Transylvania proper because of the important railway line connecting these towns, thus sparing Bucharest the trouble and expense of building a new one.
First of all, the Hungarian populations living in the immediately adjacent territories only amounted to roughly half of the svájci sunrise anti aging living in the Successor States.
The compact Hungarian-speaking settlements of the Szekler lands Székelyföld were not contiguous with the core Hungarian territories, being separated by a wide swathe of mainly Romanian-inhabited territory.
One potential solution to this svájci sunrise anti aging envisioned an autonomous or independent Transylvania, in which Romanians, Saxons and Hungarians would enjoy equal political and cultural rights.
Similarly complicated was the situation in the Banate, partitioned between Yugoslavia and Romania, where in some places as many as four nationalities Hungarian, Serbian, German and Romanian co-existed.
Such a mixed patchwork would have frustrated even the most dedicated attempts to draw satisfactory ethnic borders. Ethnic revisionism svájci sunrise anti aging had its proponents in Hungary, the majority of svájci sunrise anti aging were to be found on the political left and among the members of the emerging Populist népi movement.
Prominent among them was the versatile and enigmatic writer László Németh, who wrote that "there is a watchword much more sacred than integral Hungary: integral Hungarians". By contrast, integral revisionism referred to the complete restoration of historical Hungary; in other words, it was tantamount to a complete nullification of the territorial terms of Trianon. Central to svájci sunrise anti aging integral revisionist ideology was the concept of "St. Stephen's State" Szent István-i állameszme : Hungary had always been a state with many customs and many languages, one which had welcomed foreigners to come and settle within its borders.
Proponents of integral revision often cited the Admonitions of King Stephen Szent István Intelmeiaddressed to his son Prince Imre, in which the ruler had declared: "the country with one language and öregedésgátló hidratáló értékelések 2022 set of customs is fragile and weak".
However, few of Hungary's leaders would have termed either the extent of the reoccupied territories or the manner in which they were regained as optimal. Throughout the period in question, Hungarian leaders insisted that their goal was to achieve a "peaceful revision" of Trianon békés revízió.
That body's founding charter, the Covenant, formed Part I of the Treaty of Trianon and seemed to offer the best hope in this regard.
Article 19 of the Covenant stated that [t]he Assembly may from time to time advise the reconsideration by Members of the League of treaties which have become inapplicable and the consideration of international conditions whose continuance might endanger the peace of the world.
Given the prevailing climate of mutual antagonism in Central and Eastern Europe, few political leaders could have truly believed in the likelihood of a peaceful solution to the question. While official Hungarian foreign policy aimed at something approaching integral revision, the states of the Little Entente adamantly refused even to consider surrendering any of their territory.
A man of great erudition and energy who admired the vital nationalism of Italian Fascism, Klebelsberg was almost single-handedly responsible for the cultural and educational policies of the Bethlen Era. During his Ministry he proposed an ambitious series of initiatives that aimed to overhaul completely the Hungarian education system and gigi szemkörnyékápoló Hungary out of its cultural isolation, a factor which Klebelsberg believed had contributed greatly to Hungary's collapse.
In truth, his reform program proved to be overly ambitious, and much of it failed to materialize.
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After overseeing the completion of several practical tasks, including the transfer of the Universities of Pozsony and Kolozsvár now outside of Hungary to Pécs and Szeged respectively, the consolidation of the country's archives and the restoration of the financial well-being of the bankrupt Academy of Sciences, Klebelsberg turned his attention to reforming the educational system and eradicating illiteracy.
In he introduced a new type of secondary school, the reálgimnázium, which aimed to provide students with a more practical education by emphasizing modern languages and natural sciences. A few years later he launched a program to develop and expand the network of rural schools.
These svájci sunrise anti aging, the so-called Collegia Hungaricae, would not only promote Hungarian culture abroad, they would help to improve the image of the nation that Western public opinion held.
Centers were opened in Berlin, Vienna and Rome, while smaller-scale institutions were established in Paris and New York. Complementing these foundations, the Count also svájci sunrise anti aging scholarships to enable talented Hungarian students to study abroad 48 In the second half of the s, Klebelsberg announced his philosophy of national and cultural renewal, which he termed "neo-nationalism".
Neo-nationalism would prepare Hungarians for the work necessary to erase Trianon. In an article in the daily Pesti Napló on Svájci sunrise anti aging 1,Klebelsberg attempted to define his idea: [ We do not want to sit in the shadows, living in misery and doing without, perishing and merely vegetating forever, but rather we want to increase the productivity of Hungarian labor exponentially through the power of morals and knowledge, and through this productive labor we want to be wealthier, and thus more independent and above all more self-consciously Hungarian.
This is the healthy goal of Hungarian neo-nationalism. Trianon, for all of its ills, had presented Hungary a fresh start. Rectifying the errors of the peace settlement would be neither simple nor quick and so had to be construed as a long-term project. In the meantime, through diligent efforts, Hungarians could become better educated and wealthier than their neighbors.