As long ago as the year a plan was scheduled, in official form, to compile the bibliographical data of the Hungarian numismatic literature in such a way th at this m aterial should supplement the publication ,A Közép-Dunamedence régészeti bibliográfiája a legrégibb időktől a X I. For th at very reason the work mentioned deliberately disregarded the processing and publication of numismatical data.
This gave a sta rt to the collection of numismatical literature, with the instructions of the National Centre of Museums th a t was then still active, though extending it by the compilation of the entire literature of the Hungarian subject. The whole of the m aterial th a t had been accumulated in the course of tim e was divided by a natural line into two lézeres szemműtét öregedésgátló svájci szelet delineated groups.
One of them covers the data of num ism atic literature connected with the history of ancient times and of the m igration period across the territory of the C arpathian basin. Accordingly it is parallel in content to the work by Banner and Jakabffy. The other part contains literary data about the Hungarian history of coinage, numismatic arts and collection of coins since the 11th argus auto gratuit suisse anti aging up to the present.
W ith a literature compilation which was by no means complete so far as the first group was concerned, i. Furtherm ore, due to its extent the whole m aterial would, in any case, have been published in two parts.
The absence of a notew orthy Hungarian num ism argus auto gratuit suisse anti aging bibliography also m otivates the publication of the data elaborated till now, without waiting argus auto gratuit suisse anti aging the completion of the search for m aterials for the first part. This compilation covers the entire accessible Hungarian literature having a Hungarian reference.
The collected material has been classified according to certain periods. In order th a t the relevant bibliographical m aterial could be found as easy as possible, it was decided th a t it should not be divided into too m any periods. The aim was to enumerate even the most moderate publication attainable, dealing with the history of Hungarian coinage, numismatic arts and collection of medals.
W ithin the bounds of possibility all data concerning Hungarian numismatics were processed no m atter where published, i.
The d ata of numismatic writings issued in H ungarian publications but having no Hungarian reference were similarly disregarded. We set ourself the aim of representing the bibliographical d ata of the specific literature explicitly Hungarian or having a Hungarian concern with no intention of providing more.
W ith this object in m ind we checked all the numismatic, archaeological, historical and artistic periodicals, journals and the bibliographies published till now. N aturally it would have been impossible to undertake to include every numismatic insertion in every magazine and newspaper or to review every single one, nevertheless, when an item, published anywhere came to our knowledge we did our best to include it.
Those periodicals reviewed regularly are enumerated in a separate list which contains, at the same time, the abbreviations of frequently quoted periodicals. An effort was made to compare and, where possible, to reconcile these abbreviations in accordance with general practice, though certain amendments were made in the interests of providing greater clarity. As far as possible we used abbreviations from which it is easy to conclude the entire title of the given publication thereby obviating exhaustive checking up in the list which would otherwise be unavoidable if using merely letters or signs.
In the ease of periodicals, as a rule solely the heading and place of publication are given — though exceptions are the changes of addresses. In these cases the commencing year of each change is indicated, too.
The bibliographical d ata are classified according to the following 28 specialized groups.
This group includes bibliographical selections published till now. General works. Contains publications dealing with the history of Hungarian coinage in general; the group also contains theoretical studies; and there are articles informing about num ism atic concepts too. In brief, there are included mainly publications which cannot be a ttached closely to any specific period as well as publications with contents covering more than one period.
Catalogues of coins. In this part are enum erated the data of sale or auction catalogues of different firms, etc. I t is, however, worthwhile considering only those catalogues informing about larger and more coherent collections. Summarized lists of coin findings enumerate d ata from lists of findings compiled according to noreva serum anti age aspects, reviewing coin findings of a longer period or of certain area. Consequently these lists, because of their summarizing character, could not be attached to any of the definite periods.
Middle Ages summary. Bibliographical data of communications, publications covering the entire Middle Ages.
letölthető honlapunkról. - Magyar Numizmatikai Társulat
Late Olcsó svájci anti aging repülő lámpás Ages argus auto gratuit suisse anti aging 15th centuries. These parts comprise a synthesis of special literature on the history of coinage during the periods indicated in the headings.
A similar principle has been adopted in grouping the m aterial relating to later ages, according to the following schedule: VIII. Modern times summary I X. Modern times — X. Modern times — X I. Modern times — XII. Modern times — The above arrangement of periods takes into consideration exclusively the aspects of the history of coinage. Accordingly, P art IX includes literature on the essentially homogeneous coining in the period from the middle of the 16th century to the middle of the 18th century; P a rt X contains a compilation of bibliographical data relating to the m onetary system based on conventions; P a rt X I is broadly concerned with the literature of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and finally, P art X II details a compilation of the history of coinage in independent Hungary.
Nevertheless, publication of the bibliographical m aterial of the modern times needed some selecting. Namely, in the period from toi. As a result it is not always unambiguous whether certain publications have a Hungarian bearing or not.
A num ber of part-research papers have been published dealing explicitly with mintage of different Austrian provinces, for this reason they are neither on H ungarian subject-m atter nor connected with H ungary. All the same, their registration probably could have been considered as mainly since the 17th century the financial rules valid in the given province were usually in force in Hungary, too.
The inclusion of these data, however, would have led to a too widespread search for material. This publication was even complemented later on by two Supplements.
Comprehensive corpora and catalogues were naturally judged from another standpoint. This work is a t the disposal of everybody and is, in any case, indispensable to researchers of the recent history of Hungarian coinage. To begin with though it elaborates the literature of the entire Dual Monarchy, and thus the literature on the history of Hungarian coinage, it is by far not so voluminous as the present compilation.
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Secondly, and particularly, because it quotes the titles published on the languages of the nationalities of the Monarchy — though only translated into German. As a result, for H ungarian researchers the Hungarian titles of these data have to be painstakingly checked at the places referred to before they can be used for studies or quotations in the Hungarian language.
Times of the Kuruts.
The abundant literature concerning the independent coinage of the fight for freedom headed by Ferenc Rákóczi I I has been brought together separately.
Similarly, the bibliographical material dealing with the history of coinage of XIV. The Principality of Transylvania and X V. Slavonia and Croatia represent separate groups. Emergency currencies. Private coinage. Foreign relations. The group covers heterogeneous elements, as here are compiled data of the literature dealing with coins of the H ungarian provinces, with private coinage, with emergency currencies of metal, with foreign currencies stam ped on models of Hungarian coins, with H ungarian types furnished with a foreign counterm ark as well as with foreign coins showing any kind of Hungarian reference.
In short, the Hungarian aspect served here as the principle of selection. Paper money.
Under this title appears the literature dealing with the circulation of Austrian notes in Hungary and with Hungarian banknotes and with treasury bills as well as with paper emergency currencies having some Hungarian relevance.
The literature on medals on Hungarian subjects has been classified into three parts: XIX. Ancient medals before X X. Modern medals since ISó? The dividing data bet ween the second and third of these groups is roughly the middle of the 19th century, i.
Modern Nyelvoktatás TARTALOM KÖNYVSZEMLE HÍREK. XIII. évfolyam 2 3. szám, szeptember
This date can be regarded as a line of demarcation between the two medal groups insofar as during the two decades following the War of Independence practically no medals were struck or rather the few medals made were produced in Vienna.
I t was only afteri. These two groups, X IX and XX, enumerate not only argus auto gratuit suisse anti aging with text but also d ata of commemorative medals presented juwelier anti aging arcszérum as an illustration in periodicals reviewed by us. Here we face an extreme ease because it happens fairly frequently th at these illustrations contain solely a few lines of statem ent.
Nevertheless these pictures of medals belong closely to the knowledge of artistic work of medallists. Naturally, similar illustrations of medals could be found sporadically in newspapers and journals not revi- wed by us, however as mentioned earlier, one cannot undertake to search the complete m argus auto gratuit suisse anti aging of the Hungarian newspapers, periodicals and journals.
Badges XXII. Badges of honour. The headings of both series precisely denote the nature of d ata included, taking into consideration purely Hungarian references of course. Also enumerated is the information at our disposal about all medal-like objects which cannot be regarded as coins nor as commemorative medals. Collection of medals. This group represents an enumeration of d ata concerning Hungarian coin collections, information about the activity and collections of Hungarian [collectors as well as the scientific activity of Hungarian numismatic research officials and specialists.
Public collections. This group includes publications on medal cabinets and collections of coins in public collections, reports of recent acquisitions of museums and similar miscellaneous data. In respect of the state before the yearthe conditions of Hungary of th a t time were taken into consideration. This means th a t included are also publications on collections of medals in the possession of public collections located on the territory of states now bordering on our country.
To be specific, u n til the year these were Hungarian colllections and the public collections generally contained a collection and elaboration of argus auto gratuit suisse anti aging Hungarian material.
In th at conditions, changed afterwe ignored the literature concerning their subsequent destiny. In the list of public collections arranged according to the place of occurrence the actual names of the towns are indicated in brackets.
Associations X X VI. Both groups comprise literature relating to the H ungarian num ism atic associations study circles, working groups, etc. The designation includes publications concerning the production of coins, minting, casting, technological processes of coinage in general, in addition the equipment of mints and finally cleaning, preservation or occasionally copying processes of coins.
All data more or less related to numismatics in consequence of their subject-m atter, though not classifiable into the groups mentioned previously are enumerated here. On the other hand, the list of bibliographical data excludes book reviews, reviews about articles, and studies as experience has shown th a t these are hardly more th an a shorter or longer abstract of the argus auto gratuit suisse anti aging reviewed. Owing to the continually increasing number of num ism atic periodicals, the mass of reviews of this kind would have occupied a great deal of space with little practical benefit.
A magyar numizmatika bibliográfiája
I t was necessary to legjobb organikus anti aging szemkörnyékápoló krém from the rules only in extreme cases, e. The heading of every publication book, study, article and smaller publication is given in its original form, precisely as written in the place just referred to.
Our aim was to avoid, in this way, the misunderstandings and errors arising from transcriptions.
All groups contain the d ata listed in alphabetical order accordaing to the register of writers. In lack of an author the first word of the title was taken into consideration. A great deal of difficulty arose from the pseudonymous publications and publications provided only with abbreviations of names or marked with letters or symbols.
An effort was made to explain the abbreviations and to write argus auto gratuit suisse anti aging in full the names where possible; this has been done in such a way th a t the explained parts are given in square brackets e.
In cases where no explanation was found, the abbreviations were inserted in alphabetical order in their original form: to be more precise, in the list a t each letter the full names are preceded by the letter symbols. The collection of d ata was term inated, in principle, in the year The bibliographical compilation is completed by an author index.
The names of the authors together with pseudonyms and abbreviations occurring in the 18 groups are listed here in alphabetical order and each name is followed by the column numbers of all d ata quoted, written by the given author.
W here we succeeded in explaining the pseudonyms, abbreviations of names and argus auto gratuit suisse anti aging letters, the original name is given, subsequently the pseudonym or abbreviation in question, and this is followed by all the column numbers belonging to the name concerned, arranged into one group.
As a m atter of course the list of argus auto gratuit suisse anti aging contains all abbreviations so th a t the reader finding a kind of reference in the literature in such a form, would be able to check the accuracy of the quotation. In view of the difficulties connected with the compilation, we had to give up the idea of preparing a subject index.
Certainly the publication of, say, the list of coin findings would have rendered a service but then we would have had to digest every article from this aspect as the names of the findings are not always included in the headings of the publications.
In the field of medals it would have been similarly suitable to publish the register of medallist artists but here we faced likewise a deadlock. On the other hand only an incomplete, fragm ented work would have resulted when not publishing all the data included in the publication, simply those comprised in the title. On this basis we are able to say th at a detailed subject index would be superfluous since the whole material is 24 classified according to such clear, definite principles th a t it is possible to find the specific p art of the material needed, with no difficulty w hatsoever.
We realize th a t a compilation of this kind undor the conditions of even the most diligent search could never reach absolute perfection. No doubt data will come to light which should have been included.
This is, however, inevitable. Even so the thousands of data compiled themselves demonstrate th at the time was ripe for preparing such a bibliography, as if things continue in this way, the rapidly growing num ber of literature quotations will render any attem pt at orientation in the field of the H ungarian literature on numismatics increasingly difficult.
The above circumstances all emphasize the need to publish the present Hungarian num ism atic bibliography. Jahrhundertergänzen. Die erwähnte Arbeit verzichtete aufgrund dieser Erwägung absichtlich auf die Aufarbeitung und Veröffentlichung der numismatischen Daten. So begann im Auftrag der damals noch tätigen Landeszentrale der Museen die Sammlung des numismatischen Materials, jedoch erweitert durch argus auto gratuit suisse anti aging Zusammenstellung der gesamten numismatischen Literatur m it ungarischer Beziehung.
Das im Laufe der Zeit angehäufte Material läßt sich in zwei gut abgrenz- bare Gruppen teilen. Der eine Teil um faßt die L iteraturdaten bezüglich der Geschichte des Karpatenbeckens im Altertum und zur Zeit der Völkerwanderung, verläuft also parallel zum Material des Werkes von Banner und Jakabffy, der andere Teil enthält die Daten der L iteratur über die ungarische Geldgeschichte, M edaillenkunst und Münzensammlung vom Jahrhundert bis zu unseren Tagen.
Die M aterialsammlung der ersten Gruppe ist bei weitem nicht vollständig, d. Da aber die Materialsammlung der zweiten Gruppe bereits so weit fortgeschritten ist, daß man sie praktisch als abgeschlossen betrachten kann, wird vorläufig nur diese zweite Gruppe veröffentlicht.
Infolge des großen Umfanges des ganzen Materials h ätte man es ohnehin in zwei Teilen publizieren müssen. Auch das Fehlen einer beachtenswerten ungarischen numismatischen Bibliographie begründet die Ausgabe der bereits bearbeiteten Datenmenge, ohne den Abschluß der Materialsammlung des ersten Teiles abzuwarten.